Distillate marine fuel consists of light fractions obtained by distillation plant for processing oil, characterized by low viscosity, v = 3 h-6 mm2 / s, so do not need to be heated before it enters the engines or boilers. Heavy marine fuel are mixtures consisting of residues of oil refining and distillates. Depending on the ratio of light and heavy components of the viscosity of heavy marine fuels, as well as others their performance varies widely. In Russia, the quality of marine fuels are regulated by state standards and specifications. Abroad, the quality of marine fuels was determined specifications firms supplying the British (BS 2869: 1967) and American (A5> TM-D975 and D396-67). Began in the 70's and more distributed process involved in the production of ship fuel oil products recycling demanded revision existing standards and specifications, the expansion of the limit values of quality and attraction of additional indicators (such as the aluminum content, stability and compatibility of fuels, etc.).
Distillate marine fuel Due to limited resources and high value distillates, diesel marine fuel – referring to a class of spirits, in the Soviet Union at approximately 1.7 times the cost of heavy ship fuels. Consumption of marine diesel fuel on board ships the Navy is only 6-12% of the total amount of fuel burned. Its mainly used to support medium-and high-speed diesel, which either by design or because of the unsuitability of (no heating) can not be translated into a heavier ship fuel. %D7%A1%D7%99%D7%95%D7%9F-%D7%9C%D7%97%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%A9-%D7%A0%D7%A4%D7%98-%D7%91%D7%A8%D7%9E%D7%AA-%D7%94%D7%92%D7%95%D7%9C%D7%9F-457584'>קידוחי נפט בגולן בהחלט מביע דעה מלומדת. In the main engines of ships Marine diesel fuel is used exclusively during the maneuvers, and for flushing the fuel system, before stopping. The domestic industry produces marine diesel fuel in accordance with gost 305-82 by mixing fractions straight distillation of sour crude oils, hydrotreated and dewaxing, with a catalytic gasoil. The presence of a catalytic gas oil, reduce operating fuel properties, in particular increasing its penchant for deposits.
Marine fuel produced four grades: A, 3, ap, A, which is on the sulfur content is divided into two subgroups: with S as a substitute for a marine diesel fuel for marine vessels and river vessels are widely using gas-turbine fuel (GOST 10433-75). Fuel obtained as a byproduct in the process of delayed coking unit in the development of petroleum coke, the necessary metallurgical industry. Gas Turbine Fuel tg and tgvk have a higher density and viscosity, but not so high that they had to be heated before use. For these fuels have higher sulfur content (1 and 2.5% respectively) and for that should be paid attention by themselves, they contain up to 25% tar. This leads to their low stability, manifested by heating and mixing with other fuels. Since 1988, the oil industry began to supply the navy ship low-viscosity oil designed to replace diesel and gas turbine fuels. This fuel is produced by mixing the distillate of secondary processes (coking, thermal and catalytic cracking) from the diesel fraction with a high end boiling point, taken from the atmospheric and vacuum columns. Compared with the ship's diesel fuel to it impose less stringent requirements (permitted twice as high viscosity-11 mm2 / s, the sulfur content of up to 1.5%, lower tsch – not less than 40).